Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions  over the Earth
Chapters

ACRE Pacific

The   South   Western   Pacific   is   a   region that   is   critical   for   us   to   examine   if   we wish   to   understand   how   Earth’s   climate system    works.        We    can    expand    our knowledge   using   historical   climate   data.     New   visualization   tools   can   bring   these data    to    life.        The    extended    reanalysis without      radiosondes      effort      (ACRE- facilitated      20th      Century      Reanalysis Project      [20CR])      allows      huge      data integrations   that   no   one   else   can   do   by themselves.        It    gives    everyone    global context   for   local   conditions   via   circulation reconstructions       (past       climate       and weather)   to   pair   with   in   situ   station   data, shipboard   measurements,   and   traditional knowledge.      The   veracity   of   the   20CR reconstruction     is     dependent     on     the temporal       and       spatial       density       of observations.      We   need   to   contribute   by providing    more    data    to    ACRE    Pacific.      We    have    continued    funding    of    ACRE Pacific    via    the    New    Zealand    National Institute     of     Water     and     Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA) for the future. Contact: Dr Drew Lorrey, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Auckland, New Zealand

ACRE Southeast Asia

The   primary   goal   of   this   regional   foci   is   to build   both   capabilities   and   capacities   within Southeast   Asian   institutions,   agencies   and National   Meteorological   Services   to   improve and        extend        historical        instrumental, documentary    and    paleo    databases    of    SE Asian   weather/climate.   The   databases   will contribute   to   the   generation   of   high-quality, high-resolution            historical            weather reconstructions    (reanalyses).    These    new baselines    will    allow    scientists    and    policy makers     across     the     region     to     address weather/climate     extremes,     impacts     and risks    in    ways    and    over    time    spans    not previously possible. Activities of the project include 1 . Compiling   a   data   inventory   of   all   known data   for   the   region   -   from ACRE   sources or our partners 2 . Awareness    raising     about    ACRE    and recovery activities. 3 . Taking       part       in       conferences       and workshops 4 . Developing   a   network   of   regional   multi- disciplinary    and    academic    contacts    in humanities and sciences 5 . Research   into   extreme   weather:   storms, floods,      and      typhoons      in      archival resources 6 . Working   on   projects   to   trace   particular extreme   weather   events,   or   comparative histories of events Contact: Dr Fiona Wiliamson,  Research Fellow, Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore  

ACRE China

As   an   integral   part   of   WP1   within   the Climate   Science   for   Service   Partnership China, ACRE   China   is   tasked   to   recover, image   and   digitise   historical   daily   to   sub- daily   terrestrial   and   marine   data.      Data comes     from     stations     in     China     and surrounding   countries   and   from   the   log books   of   ships   in   the   region.      All   data   is stored      in      international      repositories, including   ICOADS,    ISTI ,   GPCC ,   and   the ISPD.    As   the   data   is   used   in   reanalyses systems   including   20CR,      ACRE   China scientists      conduct      verification      and applications reanalysis outputs. To date, digitisation work has included 1 . Sub-daily   surface   air   pressure   data of   6   stations   in   eastern   China   for   the periods before 1951 (submitted) 2 . Daily   records   of   surface   air   pressure, temperature   and   precipitation   of   19 stations   in   eastern   China   pre   1951 (submitted soon) 3 . Ancient     records     of     soil     moisture (Yuxuefencun)   for   6   stations   for   time periods 1730-1900 (to be submitted) 4 . Digitization   of   surface   air   pressure, temperature     and     precipitation     of Beijing   station   for   1757-1762,   and   it may   be   among   the   earliest   weather records of the world (underway) Planned    work    includes    high    resolution downscaling    of    20CR    output    over    the Chinese     region     via     the     Met     Office PRECIS      team.      This      would      vastly enhance   the   value   of   20CR   output   for the   Chinese   climate   science   community, plus    wide    ranging    climate    applications and    services,    policy    makers,    planners and environmental managers. Contact: Prof. Guoyu Ren, National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, China

ACRE Canada

The DRAW Data Rescue: Archives and Research  The     DRAW     (is     an     interdisciplinary project,     which     aims     to     retrieve     the information    contained    in    the    Montreal based     McGill     Observatory’s     historical weather    records    for    use    in    scientific research. Because     the     weather     logbooks     are handwritten,   they   need   to   be   transcribed manually    into    online    databases    before being   used.   The   DRAW   team   is   calling on   volunteers   across   the   world   to   help transcribe     the     tens     of     thousands     of pages   of   weather   observations   captured over the last 150 years. The    project’s    value    is    two-fold.    The weather    data    contained    in    the    McGill logbooks    has    the    unique    capacity    to improve   our   understanding   of   Montreal’s climate   and   history.   Simultaneously,   the knowledge   gained   through   the   process of     transforming     historical     information from   a   paper   format   to   a   digital   one   is invaluable     due     to     its     potential     for application in other historical contexts. Contact: Dr Vicky Slonosky School of Information Studies McGill University, Montreal, Quebec

US Colonial Era Data Study

Exploring   Connections   between   the   Past and Today The    Colonial    Era    Data    Study    is    a    wide ranging   educational   based   climate   change research    project.    This    research    combines the   areas   of   history,   mathematics/statistics, earth   science,   computer/data   visualization, and    global    communication.   The    project    is sponsored   by   groups   such   as   ACRE   and the    American    Philosophical    Society    and utilizes    representatives    from    NOAA,    UK Hadley   Centre,   university   professor,   and   a museum   archivist.   It   is   one   of   many   projects sponsored   by ACRE   to   recover,   digitize,   and analyze   historical   weather   observations.      A second   phase   of   the   U.S.   CEDS   project   is actively     expanding     these     concepts     with various   middle   and   high   schools   in   a   hands- on      learning      experience.      This      project presents      appealing      materials      for      the development    of    communication    skills    and the   accrual   of   important   world   knowledge. Because     of     this     topic’s     interdisciplinary nature,   the   project   can   also   be   particularly effective       in       various       language       arts instruction,    both    for    mainstream    and    ELL students. Contact: Mr John Buchanan, Reinsurance at Insurance Services Office, a Verisk Company, New York, USA  

ACRE Antarctica

Critical    past    weather    observations    are being     rescued     for     the     purpose     of extending         Southern         Hemisphere coverage   within   global   reanalyses   as   far back   as   possible   into   the   1800s.   Primary work      consists      of      identifying      data resources,   digital   scanning,   keying   data, quality         control,         and         archiving observations   at   NIWA.   The   augmented reanalyses   will   be   used   to   (i)   investigate poorly     understood     aspects     of     New Zealand   regional   climate   that   are   linked to   high-latitude   atmospheric   and   oceanic dynamics,    (ii)    examine    daily    synoptic type   trends,   and   (iii)   establish   a   baseline more     representative     of     pre-industrial conditions    against    which    current    and future    climate    can    be    compared.    The synoptic   type   classification   completed   in (ii)    is    being    binned    into    multi-decadal intervals    according    to    phases    of    the Interdecadal          Pacific          Oscillation. Rescued   data   are   being   archived   and made     publicly     available     through     the International           Surface           Pressure Databank    and    NIWA's    database.    The initiative     is     funded     under     the     New Zealand   Deep   South   National   Science Challenge  . Contact: Dr Drew Lorrey, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Auckland, New Zealand

ACRE Chile

The    terrestrial    and    maritime    areas    of Chile   and   the   south-east   Pacific   are   one of     the     least     represented     areas     for historical    climate    data.    Supported    by formal   agreements   between   ACRE   and agencies    of    the    Chilean    Government, work   has   been   completed   to   catalogue the    repositories    of    meteorological    and oceanographic     data.          These     range across   offices   of   the   national   archives, the         naval,         oceanographic         and meteorological     services,     and     include lighthouse     records     and     British     and Spanish    logbooks.    This    project    is    the beginning   of   a   data   acquisition   initiative for South America. Contact: Dr Antonia Valente, Instituto Dom Luiz, Rua da Escola Politécnica, 58, 1250-102, Lisboa, Portugal Dr Clive Wilkinson, RECLAIM Project, Visiting Research Fellow, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, UK

ACRE Meso-America

The     Meso-American     initiative     aims     to recover     historical     weather     observations across   countries   from   southern   Mexico   to Panama    including    Costa    Rica,    Nicaragua, Honduras,     El     Salvador,     Guatemala     and Belize. Contact: Dr Pablo Imbach, CATIE, CATIE 7170, Turrialba- Siquirres 30501 Turrialba , Cartago , Costa Rica  

ACRE Arctic

Millions     of     handwritten     weather     and ocean   observations   from   100   years   ago have    been    carefully    preserved    in    ship logbooks. They   contain   weather   and   sea ice     information     which     promises     an insight     into     the     historical     climactic conditions   in   the   Arctic.   The   Odweather citizen   science   program   transformed   the large    number    of    crucial        handwritten observations   into   digital   forms   that   can be        assimilated        by        sparse-input reanalysis   systems.      The   output   of   these systems        extends        our        baseline knowledge     of     the     Arctic’s     historical climate. The     Arctic     is     currently     experiencing rapid     loss     of     sea     ice     and     other environmental    changes.    It’s    imperative to   know   how   unusual   these   events   are and      whether      some      part      can      be explained   by   the   large   range   of   natural variability    that    is    characteristic    of    the climate    system    or    some    other    factor. Sorting   out   and   explaining   the   different regional   effects   that   play   out   in   the Arctic is   a   difficult   problem.   Greatly   assisting this    process,    the    detailed    perspective provided   by   the   logbook   data   after   it   is passed    through    a    reanalysis    system provides      the      baseline      information necessary   to   begin   to   make   these   kinds of distinctions. Contact: : Dr Kevin Wood, University of Washington, Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Oceans (JISAO), Seattle, USA

Indian Ocean Data Rescue

initiative (INDARE)

WMO   and   partner   organizations   promote the     initiation     and     implementation     of regional    and    sub-regional    climate    data initiatives       and       foster       collaborative approaches   to   work   on   climate   data   in an   end-to-end   approach,   including,   but not   limited   to,   the   recovery,   digitization, quality    control    and    homogenisation    of the      historical      climate      data.      Such initiatives         offer         also         excellent opportunities   to   use   best   practices   and tools     to     analyze     climate     data     and generate      additional      information      on climate    change    and    climate    risks    at national   scale   and   the   scale   of   the   region of    interest.        The    INdian    Ocean    DAta REscue       (INDARE)       initiative       was launched      at      the      first      international workshop    on    the    recovery    of    climate heritage     in     the     Indian     Ocean     rim countries      and      islands,      21-24     April Maputo,       Mozambique       2014.       The participants       consisted       of       several directors   of   National   Meteorological   and Hydrological   Services,   international   and regional   institutions   representatives,   and national       and       international       climate experts.    They    agreed    to    develop    an implementation     plan     of     the     INDARE initiative.        A    steering    committee    was established     in     consultation     with     the countries   to   finalize   the   implementation plan   and   develop   the   working   structure and    annual    work-plans.        The    steering committee       met       in       Geneva       (29 September     -     1     October     2014),     and adopted    the    implementation    plan    and developed       the       INDARE       working structure   and   work   plan   for   2014-2015. The     19-20     October     2015     Mauritius meeting   (19-20   October   2015)   adopted the 2015-2016 work plan. Contact: Mr Omar Baddour, Chief, Data Management Applications Division, World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), Geneva, Switzerland

ACRE Japan

Initiative underway  

ACRE Argentina

to be announced. Contact: Dr. Pablo Canziani, Unidad de Investigación y Desarrollo de las Ingenierías, Facultad Regional Buenos Aires, Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, Argentina :  pocanziani@conicet.gov.ar  

ACRE South Africa

To be announced. Contact: Prof. Stefan Graf, School of Geography, Archaeology & Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa: